Now showing 1 - 10 of 229
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Electronic quantum coherence in glycine molecules probed with ultrashort x-ray pulses in real time
    (Assoc., 2022-06-03)
    Schwickert, David
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    Ruberti, Marco
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    Kolorenč, Přemysl
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    Usenko, Sergey
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    Przystawik, Andreas
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    Baev, Karolin
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    Baev, Ivan
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    Braune, Markus
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    Bocklage, Lars
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    Czwalinna, Marie Kristin
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    Deinert, Sascha
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    Düsterer, Stefan
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    Hans, Andreas
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    Hartmann, Gregor
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    Haunhorst, Christian
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    Kuhlmann, Marion
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    Palutke, Steffen
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    Röhlsberger, Ralf
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    Rönsch-Schulenburg, Juliane
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    Schmidt, Philipp
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    Toleikis, Sven
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    Viefhaus, Jens
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    Martins, Michael
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    Knie, André
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    Averbukh, Vitali
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    Marangos, Jon P
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    Laarmann, Tim
    Here, we use x-rays to create and probe quantum coherence in the photoionized amino acid glycine. The outgoing photoelectron leaves behind the cation in a coherent superposition of quantum mechanical eigenstates. Delayed x-ray pulses track the induced coherence through resonant x-ray absorption that induces Auger decay and by photoelectron emission from sequential double photoionization. Sinusoidal temporal modulation of the detected signal at early times (0 to 25 fs) is observed in both measurements. Advanced ab initio many-electron simulations allow us to explain the first 25 fs of the detected coherent quantum evolution in terms of the electronic coherence. In the kinematically complete x-ray absorption measurement, we monitor its dynamics for a period of 175 fs and observe an evolving modulation that may implicate the coupling of electronic to vibronic coherence at longer time scales. Our experiment provides a direct support for the existence of long-lived electronic coherence in photoionized biomolecules.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Versatile metal-wire waveguides for broadband terahertz signal processing and multiplexing
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2022-02-08)
    Dong, Junliang
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    Tomasino, Alessandro
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    Balistreri, Giacomo
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    You, Pei
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    Vorobiov, Anton
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    Charette, Étienne
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    Le Drogoff, Boris
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    Chaker, Mohamed
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    Yurtsever, Aycan
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    Stivala, Salvatore
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    Vincenti, Maria A
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    De Angelis, Costantino
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    Azaña, José
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    Morandotti, Roberto
    Waveguides play a pivotal role in the full deployment of terahertz communication systems. Besides signal transporting, innovative terahertz waveguides are required to provide versatile signal-processing functionalities. Despite fundamental components, such as Bragg gratings, have been recently realized, they typically rely on complex hybridization, in turn making it extremely challenging to go beyond the most elementary functions. Here, we propose a universal approach, in which multiscale-structured Bragg gratings can be directly etched on metal-wires. Such an approach, in combination with diverse waveguide designs, allows for the realization of a unique platform with remarkable structural simplicity, yet featuring unprecedented signal-processing capabilities. As an example, we introduce a four-wire waveguide geometry, amenable to support the low-loss and low-dispersion propagation of polarization-division multiplexed terahertz signals. Furthermore, by engraving on the wires judiciously designed Bragg gratings based on multiscale structures, it is possible to independently manipulate two polarization-division multiplexed terahertz signals. This platform opens up new exciting perspectives for exploiting the polarization degree of freedom and ultimately boosting the capacity and spectral efficiency of future terahertz networks.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Design of fiber‐tip refractive index sensor based on resonant waveguide grating with enhanced peak intensity
    (MDPI, 2021)
    Yao, Yicun
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    Xie, Yanru
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    Chen, Nan Kuang
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    Pfalzgraf, Ivonne
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    ; ;
    Ren, Yingying
    Resonant waveguide gratings (RWG) are widely used as on‐chip refractometers due to their relatively high sensitivity to ambient refractive index changes, their possibility of parallel high-throughput detection and their easy fabrication. In the last two decades, efforts have been made to integrate RWG sensors onto fiber facets, although practical application is still hindered by the lim-ited resonant peak intensity caused by the low coupling efficiency between the reflected beam and the fiber mode. In this work, we propose a new compact RWG fiber‐optic sensor with an additional Fabry‐Pérot cavity, which is directly integrated onto the tip of a single‐mode fiber. By introducing such a resonant structure, a strongly enhanced peak reflectance and improved figure of merit are achieved, while, at the same time, the grating size can be greatly reduced, thus allowing for spatial multiplexing of many sensors on a tip of a single multi‐core fiber. This paves the way for the development of probe‐like reflective fiber‐tip RWG sensors, which are of great interest for multi‐channel biochemical sensing and for real‐time medical diagnostics.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Fiber-optic sensor measuring spatial distributions of refractive index and temperature
    (Soc., 2021)
    Pfalzgraf, Ivonne
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    ;
    In this work, we present a fiber sensor designed to measure simultaneously spatial inhomogeneities of the refractive index and temperature in liquid media, for example, induced by biochemical reactions. The sensor's constituent elements are Fabry-Perot microresonators fabricated in standard single-mode optical fibers by diamond blade dicing. To allow simultaneous measurements of different refractive indices, the sensor comprises two open cavities approximately 2 mm apart. With a small Si inlay inserted into one of the resonators used for temperature measurements, the sensor allows for immediate compensation of crosstalk between temperature- and composition-induced fluids' refractive index changes. The measurements were evaluated by phase tracking of the characteristic Fourier transform components of the sensor's backreflected spectra. The temperature sensitivity of the Si inlay is 0.063 rad/°C (79 pm/°C), and an accuracy of 0.01°C is obtained. Meanwhile, the two refractive index sensing (open) cavities show a sensitivity of 1168 and 1153 nm/RIU for temperature-compensated measurements. Finally, the sensor performance to measure spatial distributions is demonstrated by measuring the diffusion behavior of sucrose in water, which allows precise monitoring of hydration effects and breaking of bonds at elevated temperatures.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Influence of diluted acid mixtures on selective etching of MHz- A nd kHz-fs-laser inscribed structures in YAG
    (OSA, 2021) ; ;
    Kränkel, Christian
    We show that the inscription velocity of fs-laser written structures in YAG crystals can be significantly improved by the use of MHz repetition rates for the writing process. Using a 10 MHz inscription laser, record high writing velocities up to 100 mm/s are achieved. Also, the selective etching process is accelerated using a diluted mixture of 22% H3PO4and 24% H2SO4. The diluted mixture enables selective etching of up to 9.6 mm long, 1 μm wide and 18 μm high microchannels in 23 days. The etching parameter D of 11.2 μm2/s is a factor of 3 higher than previously reported and the selectivity is even increased by an order of magnitude. c 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Table-top interferometry on extreme time and wavelength scales
    (Soc., 2021)
    Skruszewicz, Slawomir
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    Przystawik, Andreas
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    Schwickert, David
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    Sumfleth, Malte
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    Namboodiri, Mahesh
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    Hilbert, Vinzenz
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    Klas, Robert
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    Gierschke, Philipp
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    Schuster, Vittoria
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    Vorobiov, Anton
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    Haunhorst, Christian
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    Limpert, Jens
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    Rothhardt, Jan
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    Laarmann, Tim
    Short-pulse metrology and dynamic studies in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range greatly benefit from interferometric measurements. In this contribution a Michelson-type all-reflective split-and-delay autocorrelator operating in a quasi amplitude splitting mode is presented. The autocorrelator works under a grazing incidence angle in a broad spectral range (10 nm - 1 μm) providing collinear propagation of both pulse replicas and thus a constant phase difference across the beam profile. The compact instrument allows for XUV pulse autocorrelation measurements in the time domain with a single-digit attosecond precision and a useful scan length of about 1 ps enabling a decent resolution of E/ΔE = 2000 at 26.6 eV. Its performance for selected spectroscopic applications requiring moderate resolution at short wavelengths is demonstrated by characterizing a sharp electronic transition at 26.6 eV in Ar gas. The absorption of the 11th harmonic of a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser leads to the well-known 3s3p64p1P1 Fano resonance of Ar atoms. We benchmark our time-domain interferometry results with a high-resolution XUV grating spectrometer and find an excellent agreement. The common-path interferometer opens up new opportunities for short-wavelength femtosecond and attosecond pulse metrology and dynamic studies on extreme time scales in various research fields.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Selective etching of 10 MHz repetition rate fs-laser inscribed tracks in YAG
    (2021) ; ;
    Kränkel, Christian
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    Sibilia, C.
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    Belardini, A.
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    Pauliat, G.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Multiplexing temperature-compensated open-cavity Fabry-Perot sensors at a fiber tip
    (Soc., 2021)
    Pfalzgraf, Ivonne
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    ;
    We investigate multiplexing of four highly sensitive Fabry-Perot (FP) microresonators at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber for refractive index (RI) measurements with simultaneous temperature compensation. The individual sensing elements for RI or temperature consist of either open-cavity FP resonators or solid fiber core regions fabricated by diamond-blade dicing of single-mode optical fibers, respectively. The reflectivity of the open resonators is further enhanced by matched dielectric coatings. At the same time, the solid core resonators formed by the fiber pieces between the open cavities are used as thermometers. This allows immediate compensation for temperature cross-sensitivity during RI measurements. The general performance of the sensor is demonstrated by measuring the RI of sucrose solutions, where we use phase tracking of the characteristic Fourier transform components of the backreflected optical spectrum for evaluation. The temperature sensitivity is on average 20±/∘C with an accuracy of 0.01°C, fully sufficient for biomedical applications. Meanwhile, the four RI sensing (open) cavities show high sensitivity of approximately 1160 nm/RIU. Due to the compact size of the sensor, small spatial inhomogeneities of RI can be accurately detected. If the cavities are additionally filled with molecularly imprinted polymers or coated with thin functional layers, they could also be used for the detection of trace substances in biomedical laboratory-on-a-fiber applications.