Now showing 1 - 10 of 85
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Aesthetic emotions are a key factor in aesthetic evaluation: Reply to Skov and Nadal (2020)
    (American Psychological Association, 2020-07)
    Menninghaus, Winfried
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    Schindler, Ines
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    Wagner, Valentin
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    Wassiliwizky, Eugen
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    Hanich, Julian
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    ;
    Koelsch, Stefan
    Our theoretical model (Menninghaus et al., 2019) defines aesthetic emotions by reference to their role in aesthetic evaluation, and specifically as being predictive of aesthetic liking/disliking. Skov and Nadal (2020) dismiss the construct of "aesthetic emotions" as a "dated supposition" adopted from a "speculative" tradition and assert that there are no such emotions. Accordingly, they question all pieces of empirical evidence we referred to as supporting our model. In our response, we rebut these objections point by point and defend as well as expand the empirical evidence in support of our model. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Publication
    Open Access
    No evidence for the reduction of task competition and attentional adjustment during task-switching practice
    (Elsevier, 2020-03)
    Strobach, Tilo
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    Wendt, Mike
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    ; ;
    Performance in task switching experiments is worse when the current stimulus is associated with different responses in the two tasks (i.e., incongruent condition) than when it is associated with the same response (i.e., congruent condition). This congruency effect reflects some sort of application of the irrelevant task's stimulus-response translation rules. Manipulating the recency and the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials results in a modulation of the congruency effect (i.e., Congruency Sequence Effect, CSE, and Proportion Congruency Effect, PCE, respectively), suggesting attentional adjustment of processing weights. Here, we investigated the impact of task switching practice on the congruency effect and the modulation thereof by (a) re-analyzing the data of a task switching experiment involving six consecutive sessions and (b) conducting a novel four-session experiment in which the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials were manipulated. Although practice appeared to reduce the reaction times overall and the task switch costs (i.e., slower reaction times after task switches than after task repetitions) to an asymptotic level, the congruency effect as well as its modulations remained remarkably constant. These findings thus do not provide evidence that conflict effects between tasks and attentional adjustment are affected by task switching practice.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Probing anticipatory feature-based attention
    (Pabst Science Publishers, 2020) ;
    Wendt, Mike
    ;
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Independent control processes? Evidence for concurrent distractor inhibition and attentional usage of distractor information
    (Elsevier, 2019-07)
    Gillich, Imke Marilla
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    ; ;
    Wendt, Mike
    Interference evoked by a distractor presented prior to a target stimulus is reduced when the distractor-target SOA is increased, suggesting inhibition of distractor-related activation. Distractor processing is also assumed to be (strategically) adjusted to the proportions of congruent and incongruent target-distractor combinations, yielding a larger distractor interference effect when the proportion of congruent trials is higher (i.e., Proportion Congruent Effect, PCE). To explore the interplay of proportion congruent-based processing adjustment and the time course of distractor-related activation we varied the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials as well as the distractor-target SOA. To control for item-specific priming we kept distractor-related contingencies (i.e., frequency of individual distractor-target conjunctions) constant for a subset of the stimuli (and used a different subset to manipulate the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials). A PCE occurred, even for the subset of stimuli associated with constant distractor-related contingencies, thus ruling out item-specific contingency learning. Distractor interference was reduced when the SOA was increased, but this reduction did not differ between the proportion congruent conditions, as confirmed by a Bayesian analysis. Our results are consistent with independent processes pertaining to usage of distractor information for biasing response selection and distractor inhibition during the SOA. Alternative interpretations of the independent effects of the PC manipulation and the distractor-target SOA are discussed.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    The time course of distractor-based response activation with predictable and unpredictable target onset
    (Springer, 2019)
    Jost, Kerstin
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    Wendt, Mike
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    ; ;
    Electrophysiological recording in a temporal flanker task (i.e., distractors preceding the targets) has demonstrated that distractor processing is adjusted to the overall utility of the distractors. Under high utility, that is, distractors are predictive of the target/response, distractors immediately activate the corresponding response (as indicated by the lateralized readiness potential, LRP). This activation has been shown to be markedly postponed when the target predictably occurs delayed. To investigate the occurrence and time course of distractor-related response activation under conditions of unpredictable target onset, we randomly varied the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between distractors and targets and recorded the distractor-evoked LRP. When the distractor utility was high, an LRP occurred shortly after distractor presentation. In case of a long SOA the time course of this LRP was characterized by a drop back to baseline and a subsequent re-activation that reached a substantial level before target onset. These results suggest that distractor processing is characterized by sophisticated adjustments to experienced utility and temporal constraints of the task as well as by further control processes that regulate premature response activation. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Settings, sensors, and tasks: Comment on Scherer, Trznadel, Fantini, and Coutinho
    (American Psychological Association, 2019)
    Comments on article by Scherer et al. (see record 2018-16097-001). In their study, Scherer et al. explore the aesthetic experience of opera spectators using a 12-item fuzzy emotion questionnaire. Hence, they make a contribution to the emerging endeavors to conduct empirical aesthetic studies in the field. Laboratory studies of aesthetic appreciation may, to some extent, be limited with respect to ecological validity. Investigating aesthetic appreciation in the context of its usual occurrence—and, by association, investigating aesthetic appreciation in a fully ecologically valid way—is a desideratum of today’s research. Attempting to classify (field) studies across domains of aesthetic appreciation spans up an at least three-dimensional (3D) space, constituted by factors such as settings, sensors, and tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    What Are Aesthetic Emotions?
    (American Psychological Association, 2019)
    Menninghaus, Winfried
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    Wagner, Valentin
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    Wassiliwizky, Eugen
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    Schindler, Ines
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    Hanich, Julian
    ;
    ;
    Koelsch, Stefan
  • Publication
    Metadata only
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Multifeature Mismatch Negativity in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    (SAGE, 2019) ;
    Frey, Johannes Daniel
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    Gorzka, Robert Jacek
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    Engers, Anika
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    Wendt, Mike
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    Höllmer, Helge
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    Objective. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential has been used to examine auditory monitoring in various mental disorders. Previous research with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has revealed contradictory results. Enhanced as well as diminished MMNs have been obtained. Method. The multifeature protocol was employed to investigate the pattern of MMN in 17 military deployment–related PTSD patients and a group of healthy university student controls. Results. Our results suggest no general effect of PTSD on the MMN involving the majority of acoustic features. There were slightly reduced MMNs in patients relative to controls for 2 of the features (duration, location). On the other hand, the N1 component was reduced in patients compared with controls. Conclusions. Choice of the stimulus protocol might be an important factor to explain inconsistent results in previous research. Differences in the auditory context between stimulus protocols and deficits in the formation of larger (auditory) contexts in PTSD might account for the results. Significance. This study adds to the small number of studies on PTSD and MMN and revealed valuable information to guide future, related studies. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2018.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Symmetry Is Not a Universal Law of Beauty
    (SAGE, 2019)
    Leder, Helmut
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    Tinio, Pablo P. L.
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    Brieber, David
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    Kröner, Tonio
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    Rosenberg, Raphael
    Scientific disciplines as diverse as biology, physics, and psychological aesthetics regard symmetry as one of the most important principles in nature and one of the most powerful determinants of beauty. However, symmetry has a low standing in the arts and humanities. This difference in the valuation of symmetry is a remarkable illustration of the gap between the two cultures. To close this gap, we conducted an interdisciplinary, empirical study to directly demonstrate the effects of art expertise on symmetry appreciation. Two groups of art experts—artists and art historians—and a group of non-experts provided spontaneous beauty ratings of visual stimuli that varied in symmetry and complexity. In complete contrast to responses typically found in non-art experts, art experts found asymmetrical and simple stimuli as most beautiful. This is evidence of the effects of specific education and training on aesthetic appreciation and a direct challenge to the universality of symmetry. © The Author(s) 2018.