Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Comparison of two reaction-time-based and one foraging-based behavioral approach-avoidance tasks in relation to interindividual differences and their reliability
    (Springer Nature, 2023-12-16)
    Fricke, Kim
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    Alexander, Nina
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    Vogel, Susanne
    Approaching rewards and avoiding punishments is a fundamental aspect of behavior, yet individuals differ in the extent of these behavioral tendencies. One popular method to assess differences in approach-avoidance tendencies and even modify them, is using behavioral tasks in which spontaneous responses to differently valenced stimuli are assessed (e.g., the visual joystick and the manikin task). Understanding whether these reaction-time-based tasks map onto the same underlying constructs, how they predict interindividual differences in theoretically related constructs and how reliable they are, seems vital to make informed judgements about current findings and future studies. In this preregistered study, 168 participants (81 self-identified men, 87 women) completed emotional face versions of these tasks as well as an alternative, foraging-based paradigm, the approach-avoidance-conflict task, and answered self-report questionnaires regarding anxiety, aggression, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition and activation. Importantly, approach-avoidance outcome measures of the two reaction-time-based tasks were unrelated with each other, showed little relation to self-reported interindividual differences and had subpar internal consistencies. In contrast, the approach-avoidance-conflict task was related to behavioral inhibition and aggression, and had good internal consistencies. Our study highlights the need for more research into optimizing behavioral approach-avoidance measures when using task-based approach-avoidance measures to assess interindividual differences.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    The effects of hydrocortisone and yohimbine on human behavior in approach-avoidance conflicts
    (2023-06-14)
    Fricke, Kim
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    Alexander, Nina
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    Krug, Henriette
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    Wehkamp, Kai
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    Vogel, Susanne
    Rationale Balancing approach of positive and avoidance of negative stimuli is essential when faced with approach-avoidance conflicts, e.g., situations with both positive and negative outcomes. This balance is disturbed in several mental disorders, e.g., excessive avoidance in anxiety disorders, and heightened approach in substance use disorders. Since stress is assumed to impact these disorders’ etiology and maintenance, it seems crucial to understand how stress influences behavior in approach-avoidance conflicts. Indeed, some studies suggested altered approach-avoidance behavior under acute stress, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Objectives Investigate how the pharmacological manipulation of major stress mediators (cortisol and noradrenaline) influences task-based approach-avoidance conflict behavior in healthy individuals. Methods Ninety-six participants (48 women, 48 men) received either 20mg hydrocortisone, 20mg yohimbine, both, or placebo before performing a task targeting foraging under predation in a fully crossed double-blind between-subject design. Moreover, we investigated effects of gender and endogenous testosterone and estradiol levels on approach-avoidance behavior. Results While biological stress markers (cortisol concentration, alpha amylase activity) indicated successful pharmacological manipulation, behavior in approach-avoidance conflicts was not affected as expected. Although yohimbine administration affected risky foraging latency under predation, we found no main effect of hydrocortisone or their interaction on behavior. In contrast, we found gender differences for almost all behavioral outcome measures, which might be explained by differences in endogenous testosterone levels. Conclusions The investigated major stress mediators were not sufficient to imitate previously shown stress effects on approach-avoidance conflict behavior. We discuss potential reasons for our findings and implications for future research.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Aesthetic emotions are a key factor in aesthetic evaluation: Reply to Skov and Nadal (2020)
    (American Psychological Association, 2020-07)
    Menninghaus, Winfried
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    Schindler, Ines
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    Wagner, Valentin
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    Wassiliwizky, Eugen
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    Hanich, Julian
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    Koelsch, Stefan
    Our theoretical model (Menninghaus et al., 2019) defines aesthetic emotions by reference to their role in aesthetic evaluation, and specifically as being predictive of aesthetic liking/disliking. Skov and Nadal (2020) dismiss the construct of "aesthetic emotions" as a "dated supposition" adopted from a "speculative" tradition and assert that there are no such emotions. Accordingly, they question all pieces of empirical evidence we referred to as supporting our model. In our response, we rebut these objections point by point and defend as well as expand the empirical evidence in support of our model. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Publication
    Open Access
    No evidence for the reduction of task competition and attentional adjustment during task-switching practice
    (Elsevier, 2020-03)
    Strobach, Tilo
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    Wendt, Mike
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    ; ;
    Performance in task switching experiments is worse when the current stimulus is associated with different responses in the two tasks (i.e., incongruent condition) than when it is associated with the same response (i.e., congruent condition). This congruency effect reflects some sort of application of the irrelevant task's stimulus-response translation rules. Manipulating the recency and the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials results in a modulation of the congruency effect (i.e., Congruency Sequence Effect, CSE, and Proportion Congruency Effect, PCE, respectively), suggesting attentional adjustment of processing weights. Here, we investigated the impact of task switching practice on the congruency effect and the modulation thereof by (a) re-analyzing the data of a task switching experiment involving six consecutive sessions and (b) conducting a novel four-session experiment in which the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials were manipulated. Although practice appeared to reduce the reaction times overall and the task switch costs (i.e., slower reaction times after task switches than after task repetitions) to an asymptotic level, the congruency effect as well as its modulations remained remarkably constant. These findings thus do not provide evidence that conflict effects between tasks and attentional adjustment are affected by task switching practice.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Probing anticipatory feature-based attention
    (Pabst Science Publishers, 2020) ;
    Wendt, Mike
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