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  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Large-signal time-domain equivalent circuit model for PEM fuel cell stacks
    Hydrogen fuel cells have become one of the most viable power sources for electric aircraft. Models representing the electrical behavior of the fuel cell stack over the full dynamic operation region are essential for the development of power electronic energy systems powered by fuel cell stacks. This work presents an electrical equivalent circuit model for PEM fuel cell stacks representing the static and dynamic electrical behavior of the fuel cell stack under pulsed loads up to frequencies of 10 kHz. Dynamic phenomena on time scales slower than the considered timescale of power-electronic switching, such as reactant flow, membrane hydration, and temperature effects, are considered stationary. The parameterization method proposed is developed on measured data from a 110 W PEM fuel cell stack and validated with a set of measured data from a 2 kW stack. The time-domain simulated behavior of the parameterized model shows an accurate representation of the measured behavior: the parameterized model reproduces both the static polarization behavior and the behavior under high-frequency pulsed loading with errors of less than 1% with respect to the nominal stack voltage. The model is suitable for dynamic simulation of power electronic systems directly connected to fuel cell stacks and can be parameterized without special electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Full Range Dynamic Equivalent Circuit Model for PEM Fuel Cell Stacks
    This work presents the development and parameterization of a dynamic equivalent circuit model of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The model represents the static and dynamic behavior of the fuel cell stack under pulsed ohmic loading up to switching frequencies of 10 kHz. The model is developed using established mathematical descriptions of fuel cell processes. The model is then parameterized and validated using measurement data obtained from an 11 cell, 110 W PEM fuel cell stack.