Now showing 1 - 10 of 25
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    Surrogate-based optimization for the worst-case prediction regarding a flexible structure impacted by wind gusts
    The paper is a follow-up of the recent study on the assessment of discrete wind gust parameters impacting a flexible lightweight structure as a first step towards the evaluation of the worst-case scenario caused by strong wind gusts (JWEIA 231, 105207, 2022). The present study goes beyond by suggesting an optimization framework which allows to determine the worst-case scenario automatically. For this purpose, a stochastic response surface algorithm with a surrogate model based on radial basis functions is chosen. The algorithm relies on costly evaluations of the objective function, which consist of CPU-time intensive fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) high-fidelity simulations including the pre- and post-processing of the results. Besides the parallelization of the coupled FSI solver, a parallel version of the optimization algorithm allows to carry out several costly evaluations simultaneously. The Metric Stochastic Response Surface algorithm determines the worst case fast. Then, it continues to explore the optimization space to ensure that the global extremum is reached. A sensitivity study on relevant parameters of the optimization algorithm is conducted. Typically, for the present FSI setup, an optimization run takes one week with 6 evaluations in parallel to compute 100 different configurations. The worst case is found after about one third of the evaluations. The increase of parallel evaluations drastically reduces the wall-clock time, but the worst case is found later after half of the evaluations. This later finding is due to the parallel nature of the algorithm. Finally, the various sources of uncertainties that arise throughout the entire procedure are assessed and discussed.
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    Assessment of discrete wind gust parameters: Towards the worst-case scenario of a FSI application in form of an inflated hemisphere
    The paper is a step towards the evaluation of the worst-case scenario caused by strong wind gusts impacting civil engineering air-inflated lightweight structures. These extreme events with short durations but high strengths are responsible for short-term highly instantaneous loads endangering the structural integrity. A generic test case is defined including a discrete wind gust model, the approaching turbulent boundary layer and a flexible structure. The simulation framework relies on a partitioned solver for FSI. To save CPU-time, a part of the investigations is conducted for the rigid case as a physical meta-model. The particularly critical cases were examined for the flexible structure. Under varying system parameters (gust strength, length and position) the objective functions (forces, deflections, inner stresses) are evaluated. The worst case occurs for maximal gust strength and length, when the gust hits the membrane at half height. Furthermore, the effect of the superposition of the gust with background turbulence is analyzed for two scenarios. The gust is first superimposed to different inflow turbulences of the same intensity leading to non-negligible deviations of forces and deflections. Second, the level of the turbulence intensity is increased showing only a minor effect on the structure not generating a new worst case.
  • Publication
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    FSI simulations of wind gusts impacting an air-inflated flexible membrane at Re = 100,000
    The paper addresses the simulation of turbulent wind gusts hitting rigid and flexible structures. The purpose is to show that such kind of complex fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems can be simulated by high-fidelity numerical techniques with reasonable computational effort. The main ingredients required for this objective are an efficient method to inject wind gusts within the computational domain by the application of a recently developed source-term formulation, an equally effective method to prescribe the incoming turbulent flow and last but not least a reliable FSI simulation methodology to predict coupled problems based on a partitioned solution approach combining an LES fluid solver with a FEM/IGA solver for the structure. The present application is concerned with a rigid and a membranous hemisphere installed in a turbulent boundary layer and impacted by wind gusts of different strength. The methodology suggested allows to inject the gusts in close vicinity of the object of interest, which is typically well resolved. Therefore, the launch and transport of the wind gust can be realized without visible numerical dissipation and without large computational effort. The effect of the gusts on the flow field, the resulting forces on the structure and the corresponding deformations in case of the flexible structure are analyzed in detail. A comparison between the rigid and the flexible case makes it possible to work out the direct reaction of the deformations on the force histories during the impact. Furthermore, in case of the flexible structure the temporal relationships between local or global force developments and the local deformations are evaluated. Such predictions pinpoint the areas of high stresses and strains, where the material is susceptible to failure.
  • Publication
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    Assessment of two wind gust injection methods: Field velocity vs. split velocity method
    The objective of the present paper is to revisit two well-known wind gust injection methods in a consistent manner and to assess their performance based on different application cases. These are the field velocity method (FVM) and the split velocity method (SVM). For this purpose, both methods are consistently derived pointing out the link to the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation and the geometric conservation law. Furthermore, the differences between FVM and SVM are worked out and the advantages and disadvantages are compared. Based on a well-known test case considering a vertical gust hitting a plate and a newly developed case taking additionally a horizontal gust into account, the methods are evaluated and the deviations resulting from the disregard of the feedback effect in FVM are assessed. The results show that the deviations between the predictions by FVM and SVM are more pronounced for the horizontal gust justifying the introduction of this new test case. The main reason is that the additional source term in SVM responsible for the feedback effect of the surrounding flow on the gust itself nearly vanishes for the vertical gust, whereas it has a significant impact on the flow field and the resulting drag and lift coefficients for the horizontal gust. Furthermore, the correct formulation of the viscous stress tensor relying on the total velocity as done in case of SVM plays an important role, but is found to be negligible for the chosen Reynolds number of the present test cases. The study reveals that SVM is capable of delivering physical results in contradiction to FVM. It paves the way for investigating further complex gust configurations (e.g., inclined gusts) and practical applications towards coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations of engineering structures impacted by wind gusts.
  • Publication
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    Experimental investigations on the dynamic behavior of a 2-DOF airfoil in the transitional Re number regime based on digital-image correlation measurements
    © 2020 The Authors The present paper investigates the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of a wing with two degrees of freedom (DOF), i.e., pitch and heave, in the transitional Reynolds number regime. This 2-DOF setup marks a classic configuration in aeroelasticity to demonstrate flutter stability of wings. In the past, mainly analytic approaches have been developed to investigate this challenging problem under simplifying assumptions such as potential flow. Although the classical theory offers satisfying results for certain cases, modern numerical simulations based on fully coupled approaches, which are more generally applicable and powerful, are still rarely found. Thus, the aim of this paper is to provide appropriate experimental reference data for well-defined configurations under clear operating conditions. In a follow-up contribution these will be used to demonstrate the capability of modern simulation techniques to capture instantaneous physical phenomena such as flutter. The measurements in a wind tunnel are carried out based on digital-image correlation (DIC). The investigated setup consists of a straight wing using a symmetric NACA 0012 airfoil. For the experiments the model is mounted into a frame by means of bending and torsional springs imitating the elastic behavior of the wing. Three different configurations of the wing possessing a fixed elastic axis are considered. For this purpose, the center of gravity is shifted along the chord line of the airfoil influencing the flutter stability of the setup. Still air free-oscillation tests are used to determine characteristic properties of the unloaded system (e.g. mass moment of inertia and damping ratios) for one (pitch or heave) and two degrees (pitch and heave) of freedom. The investigations on the coupled 2-DOF system in the wind tunnel are performed in an overall chord Reynolds number range of 9.66×103≤Re≤8.77×104. The effect of the fluid-load induced damping is studied for the three configurations. Furthermore, the cases of limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) as well as diverging flutter motion of the wing are characterized in detail. In addition to the DIC measurements, hot-film measurements of the wake flow for the rigid and the oscillating airfoil are presented in order to distinguish effects originating from the flow and the structure.
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  • Publication
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    Systematic evaluation of the interface description for fluid–structure interaction simulations using the isogeometric mortar-based mapping
    (Elsevier, 2019-04)
    Apostolatos, Andreas
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    Bletzinger, Kai Uwe
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    Wüchner, Roland
    © 2019 The Authors Within this study the influence of the interface description for partitioned Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations is systematically evaluated. In particular, a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS)-based isogeometric mortar method is elaborated which enables the transfer of fields defined on low-order and isogeometric representations of the interface along which the FSI constraints are defined. Moreover, the concept of the Exact Coupling Layer (ECL) using the proposed isogeometric mortar-based mapping method is presented. It allows for smoothing fields that are transferred between two standard low-order surface discretizations applying the exact interface description in terms of NURBS. This is especially important for highly turbulent flows, where the artificial roughness of the low-order faceted FSI interfaces results in spurious flow fields leading to inaccurate FSI solutions. The approach proposed is subsequently compared to the standard mortar-based mapping method for transferring fields between two low-order surface representations (finite volume method for the fluid and finite element method for the structure) and validated on a simple lid-driven cavity FSI benchmark. Then, the physically motivated 3D example of the turbulent flow around a membranous hemisphere (Wood et al., 2016) is considered. Its behavior is predicted by combining the large-eddy simulation technique with the isogeometric analysis to demonstrate the usefulness of the isogeometric mortar-based mapping method for real-world FSI applications. Additionally, the test case of a bluff body significantly deformed in an eigenmode shape of the aforementioned hemisphere is used. For this purpose, both “standard” low-order finite element discretizations and a smooth IGA-based description of the structural surface are considered. This deformation is transferred to the fluid FSI interface and the influence of the interface description on the fluid flow is analyzed. Finally, the computational costs related to the presented methodology are evaluated. The results suggest that the proposed methodology can effectively improve the overall FSI behavior with minimal effort by considering the exact geometry description based on the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model of the FSI interface.
  • Publication
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    Modeling of wind gusts for large-eddy simulations related to fluid-structure interactions
    (Springer, 2019) ; ;
    Perali, Paolo
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    Grollmann, Kai Michael
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    Salvetti, Maria Vittoria
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    Armenio, Vincenzo
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    Fröhlich, Jochen
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    Geurts, Bernard J.
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    Kuerten, Hans
    © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. The dimensioning of lightweight structures under wind loads strongly depends on realistic flow conditions. Two different setups have to be distinguished. For a long-term analysis such as dynamic fatigue, temporally and spatially correlated velocity distributions are required as inflow conditions for a large-eddy simulation (LES) to mimic a realistic physical setup (Wood et al, Flow Turbul Combust 97(1):79–119, 2016, [9]).