openHSU – Research Showcase

4604
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779
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140
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109
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35
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17
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  • Publication
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    “Let’s see what happens:”—Women’s experiences of open-label placebo treatment for menopausal hot flushes in a randomized controlled trial
    (2022-11-04)
    Pan, Yiqi
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    Frank, Miriam L.
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    Kaptchuk, Ted J.
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    Abdelbasset, Walid Kamal
    Open-label (honestly prescribed) placebos are an ethical way to evoke placebo effects in patients. As part of a mixed-methods study, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight menopausal women who underwent and benefitted from open-label placebo treatment in a randomized-controlled trial of hot flushes. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. We found that the women had low expectations about the placebo treatment yet endorsed what they referred to as “hope” and openness to “see what happens”. Recording hot flushes via the symptom diary was viewed as a valuable opportunity for self-examination and appraising outcomes. Receiving relief from the placebo treatment empowered women and enhanced their sense of control and agency. In summary, participants’ initial openness towards placebos, their hopes to get better, monitoring symptoms closely, and taking the initiative to address symptoms were components of a positive open-label placebo experience.
  • Publication
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    Informed consent for psychotherapy: Ethical illusion or clinical reality? A survey about psychotherapists' attitudes and practices in Germany
    (2022-09-30)
    Gerke, Leonie
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    Meyrose, Ann‐Katrin
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    Objective This study aimed to assess clinicians' attitudes and their current clinical practices regarding informed consent for psychotherapy. Method A convenience sample of N = 530 clinicians in Germany (n = 418 licensed psychotherapists and n = 112 postgraduate psychotherapy trainees) took part in an online survey. Results Most clinicians (84%) reported obtaining informed consent for psychotherapy in their daily routine. However, many psychotherapists felt unsure about satisfactorily fulfilling the legal (63%) and ethical obligations (52%). The two most frequently reported components of information disclosure related to explaining the terms and conditions of psychotherapy (96%) and the psychotherapeutic approach (91%). Providing information about mechanisms of psychotherapy (33%) and the role of expectations (30%) were least practiced. One in five psychotherapists reported not informing clients about potential risks and side effects. A considerable proportion reported concern about inducing anxiety in patients by disclosing information about risks and side effects (52%). Conclusions Although obtaining informed consent for psychotherapy seems to be the rule rather than the exception in clinical practice, the quality of its implementation in terms of legal, ethical and clinical demands remains questionable. Training psychotherapists in providing comprehensive informed consent enables informed decision‐making and might have a positive influence on treatment expectations and outcomes.
  • Publication
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    Optimized informed consent for psychotherapy: protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    (JMIR Publications Inc., 2022-09-30)
    Gerke, Leonie
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    ; ;
    Trachsel, Manuel
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    Härter, Martin
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    Background Informed consent is a legal and ethical prerequisite for psychotherapy. However, in clinical practice, consistent strategies to obtain informed consent are scarce. Inconsistencies exist regarding the overall validity of informed consent for psychotherapy as well as the disclosure of potential mechanisms and negative effects, the latter posing a moral dilemma between patient autonomy and nonmaleficence. Objective This protocol describes a randomized controlled web-based trial aiming to investigate the efficacy of a one-session optimized informed consent consultation. Methods The optimized informed consent consultation was developed to provide information on the setting, efficacy, mechanisms, and negative effects via expectation management and shared decision-making techniques. A total of 122 participants with an indication for psychotherapy will be recruited. Participants will take part in a baseline assessment, including a structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) disorders. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned either to a control group receiving an information brochure about psychotherapy as treatment as usual (n=61) or to an intervention group receiving treatment as usual and the optimized informed consent consultation (n=61). Potential treatment effects will be measured after the treatment via interview and patient self-report and at 2 weeks and 3 months follow-up via web-based questionnaires. Treatment expectation is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include the capacity to consent, decisional conflict, autonomous treatment motivation, adherence intention, and side-effect expectations. Results This trial received a positive ethics vote by the local ethics committee of the Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University-Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany on April 1, 2021, and was prospectively registered on June 17, 2021. The first participant was enrolled in the study on August 5, 2021. We expect to complete data collection in December 2022. After data analysis within the first quarter of 2023, the results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals in summer 2023. Conclusions If effective, the optimized informed consent consultation might not only constitute an innovative clinical tool to meet the ethical and legal obligations of informed consent but also strengthen the contributing factors of psychotherapy outcome, while minimizing nocebo effects and fostering shared decision-making. Trial Registration PsychArchives; http://dx.doi.org/10.23668/psycharchives.4929 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/39843
  • Publication
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    Synchronous high-speed measurements of a flexible structure under wind gust load
    (AIP Publishing, 2024-07-16) ;
    Neumann, Torben
    Simultaneously measuring the fluid flow around a flexible structure and the resulting deformations during short-term yet highly dynamic flow events is the focus of this fluid-structure interaction (FSI) study. These scenarios occur when a wind gust impacts a flexible structure, leading to extreme loads and significant deflections. To mimic such gusts, a specifically designed wind gust generator is used within a wind tunnel featuring an open test section. A high-speed particle-image velocimetry system records the flow field, while the digital-image correlation technique captures the structural deformations. That allows to perform synchronized coupled fluid-structure measurements for a \mbox{T-structure} under wind gust load. The time-resolved measurements are repeated up to 104 times, allowing for phase-averaging of both the flow and the structural data, and to examine the convergence of the statistics. A comprehensive analysis of the instantaneous and phase-averaged data reveals that the flow field in the vicinity of the structure undergoes noticeable changes during the gust impact. The recirculation region behind the T-structures perceptibly increases when the gust hits the structure. A maximum deformation of about 10% of its height is observed during the highly dynamic gust event. Given (1) the availability of synchronously recorded data for both the fluid flow and the structure deformation, (2) the simplicity of the structure's geometry, and (3) the moderate Reynolds number of about 4 x 10^4, this case also serves as a well-suited benchmark test case for evaluating simulation methodologies for strongly coupled, highly dynamic FSI problems.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Weiterbildung im Fokus!
    (Helmut-Schmidt-Universität / Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Bibliothek, 2024-07-17) ; ; ;
    Zok, Paula
    "Warum nehmen bildungsferne Zielgruppen bzw. weiterbildungsbenachteiligte Personen nur selten oder häufig gar nicht an Weiterbildung teil?“ So lautet die Forschungsfrage einer Hamburger Regionalstudie (Laufzeit Mai 2021 bis März 2024), deren zentralen Erkenntnisse in der Handreichung präsentiert werden. Seit langem ist in der Adressaten-, Zielgruppen- und Teilnehmendenforschung der Erwachsenenbildung/Weiterbildung bekannt, dass längst nicht alle Menschen den gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen des lebenslangen Lernens nachkommen (können). Unterschiede im Teilnahmeverhalten zeigen sich aufgrund von Faktoren wie Bildungsstand, Milieuzugehörigkeit, berufliche Tätigkeit, Geschlecht, Alter und Migrationsgeschichte. Doch die Fokussierung auf soziodemographische Faktoren allein reicht nicht aus, um individuelles Teilnahmeverhalten hinreichend begründen zu können. Weitere strukturelle, organisatorische und subjektive Aspekte sowie deren vielfältigen Verschränkungen können eine nicht zu unterschätzende einschränkende wie auch förderliche Rolle hinsichtlich individueller Entscheidungen für die (Nicht-)Teilnahme an formaler Weiterbildung spielen. Dies zeigen eindrücklich die Ergebnisse dieser regionalen Studie. Die Studie beruht auf einem qualitativ-explorativen, subjektwissenschaftlich orientierten Forschungsdesign. Für eine stärkere Rückbindung in das Praxisfeld der Weiterbildung und Bildungsberatung wurden vorläufige empirische Ergebnisse Betroffenen wie Expertinnen und Experten der Praxis rückgespiegelt und diskutiert. Gemeinsam wurden theoretisch begründete, praxisorientierte Handlungsempfehlungen erarbeitet. Die Handreichung umfasst im ersten Teil einen Überblick zum wissenschaftlichen Kontext der Studie, zu bildungspolitischen Zielsetzungen und zum Stand der Adressaten-, Zielgruppen- und Teilnehmerforschung der Erwachsenenbildung. Teil zwei beinhaltet Darlegungen zum Forschungsvorgehen sowie die Präsentation der zentralen Forschungsergebnisse und -erkenntnisse. Im dritten Teil folgen Ableitungen für die Praxis, die sich auf verschiedene Handlungsbereiche und -arenen der Weiterbildungsarbeit mit benachteiligten Zielgruppen beziehen. Sie beinhalten Vorschläge und Ideen sowie theoriegeleitete Reflexionsbezüge für ein professionelles Handeln auf der Mikro- und Mesoebene.
  • Publication
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    Possible alleviation of symptoms and side effects through clinicians’ nocebo information and empathy in an experimental video vignette study
    (2022-09-27)
    Meijers, M. C.
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    Stouthard, J.
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    Evers, A. W. M.
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    Das, E.
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    Drooger, H. J.
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    Jansen, S. J. A. J.
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    Francke, A. L.
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    Plum, N.
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    van der Wall, E.
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    Dusseldorp, E.
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    van Vliet, L. M.
    To alleviate anti-cancer treatment burden in advanced breast cancer, patient-clinician communication strategies based on nocebo-effect mechanisms are promising. We assessed distinct/combined effects on psychological outcomes (e.g. anxiety; main outcome) and side-effect expectations of (1) nocebo information about the (non)pharmacological origin of side effects, and (2) clinician-expressed empathy through reassurance of continuing support. Furthermore, we explored whether information and empathy effects on side-effect expectations were mediated by decreased anxiety. In a two-by-two experimental video-vignette design, 160 cancer patients/survivors and healthy women watched one of four videos differing in level of nocebo information (±) and empathy (±). Regression and mediation analysis were used to determine effects of information/empathy and explore anxiety’s mediating role. Anxiety was not influenced by empathy or information (Stai-state: p = 0.295; p = 0.390, VAS p = 0.399; p = 0.823). Information improved (specific) side-effect coping expectations (p < 0.01). Empathy improved side-effect intensity expectations (p < 0.01 = specific; p < 0.05 = non-specific/partial) and specific side-effect probability expectations (p < 0.01), and increased satisfaction, trust, and self-efficacy (p < 0.001). No mediating effects were found of anxiety on expectations. Mainly empathy, but also nocebo information improved psychological outcomes and—mainly specific—side-effect expectations. Exploring the power of these communication elements in clinical practice is essential to diminish the anti-cancer treatment burden in advanced breast cancer.
  • Publication
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    Residential load modeling for energy application and integration studies in the framework of smart meter gateways
    (VDE Verlag, 2020-12-01)
    Heider, Felix
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    With the implementation of a high secure communication infrastructure in Germany above the low voltage grid the integration of a wide spectrum of energy applications is conceivable, but not easily testable. The lack of a fundamental model, depicting the properties of the Smart Meter Gateway (SMGW) as the central communication device leads to integration studies with possible variations in the basic assumptions and their comparability. The aim of this paper is the development of a modeling approach that can accurately capture the SMGw properties and the challenges of the utilities and companies under various conditions. The developed methodology can be applied to several grid-compliant or market-oriented engineering questions and their potential for new business models through, e.g. switch-off flexibility communication, utilizing the SMGw as additional signal and data exchange layer of the future grid.
  • Publication
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    Determination of a frequency-dependent transformer model through grid impedance measurements
    In this work, a frequency-dependent transformer model is derived with the help of a measurement device that determines the frequency response of the grid impedance at an arbitrary point of connection to the power grid. In this case, the measurement device was connected to a 20 kV medium voltage grid of a wind farm. The disconnection and reconnection of the wind turbine’s transformers revealed the impact the open circuit input impedance of the transformers has on the positive sequence component of the grid impedance. First deriving a positive sequence grid model from the measurement without the transformers, later analyzing the impact the transformers have on the grid impedance, allowed the calculation of the positive sequence component of a frequency-dependent open circuit transformer model, which results in the same impact on the overall grid impedance as observed in the measurements.
  • Publication
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    Short-circuit behavior of a PEM fuel cell stack under various operating conditions
    Optimized grid integration of proton exchange membrane fuel cells in various possible applications requires a suitable protection system. For this reason, this paper examines the transient behavior of a fuel cell stack after an external electrical shortening. In order to show the influence of operating parameters on the short-circuit behavior, various experiments with changed anode and cathode humidity, cell temperature and anode and cathode stoichiometry are carried out. With this, manufacturers can estimate the short-circuit magnitude of their stacks and recommend a suitable plant protection system. It could be shown that the peak short-circuit current depends on the operating point as well as the operating conditions. For the steady-state short-circuit current, the gas stoichiometry has an impact on the deliverable current. For all other operating conditions the steady-state short-circuit current is approximately twice the recommended maximum operating current. Furthermore, a method to estimate the effective fuel cell stack capacity out of the transient short-circuit current is presented.
  • Publication
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    Reliability analysis of large-scale electric bus depots based on different failure scenarios
    In order to decrease the harmful emissions of diesel buses, the senate of Hamburg has decided to allow buying only emission free buses by 2020. The two transportation companies in Hamburg; the Hamburger HOCHBAHN AG and Verkehrsbetriebe Hamburg-Holstein GmbH (VHH) are therefore converting their diesel bus depots to electric ones. Total of eight electrical bus depots are planned to be built during the upcoming years in Hamburg. Those bus depots should be able to serve approximately a total of 1500 buses by 2030. The transportation field is critical for every city due its daily usage. This paper analyzes the cases of having different failure scenarios in the components of the charging infrastructure and their effect on the charging processes of the buses. Additionally the contribution of this paper is to show the effects of the failure scenarios on the routes assigned to the concerned buses. In one of the bus depots, a second-life battery is implemented to the system. In the other bus depot, a 5 MW emergency connection is simulated. Both have the target of decreasing the severity of the situation. For this purpose many charging scenarios are considered to simulate these effects at diverse operational conditions. As a conclusion, the degree of severity of each case is presented based on the failures consequences.